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National emblem of Greece laden with rich, interesting history



The Greek flag is a captivating mix of blue and white that takes us deep into Greece’s history. It is more than just colours, it is a symbol that means a lot to the people of the country. This flag has a design that holds secrets, like a puzzle waiting to be solved.

You cannot miss the famous cross and the nine stripes on this flag. With its iconic cross and nine alternating stripes, this flag stands as a testament to a nation’s resilience and unity.

Read on to discover more fascinating details about the Greek flag.

What is the Greek flag?

What is the Greek flag?


The national flag of Greece is more than just a piece of cloth, it is a powerful symbol that represents the country’s rich history and culture.

The Greek flag is officially recognised as one of Greece’s important symbols. It is made up of nine horizontal stripes that are the same size. These stripes alternate between the colours blue and white. In the upper hoist-side corner (that’s the top left corner), you will see a blue square with a white cross on it.

That white cross on the blue square is a special symbol. It stands for Eastern Orthodox Christianity, a significant religion in Greece. This cross is an important part of Greek history and culture.

The Greek national flag had a major alteration in 1978. With a 2:1:3 ratio, the marine flag was formally approved as the country’s national flag, superseding all other designs that had been in use before. With its unique blue and white design, this sea flag was adopted for use as a civil and military ensign.

One notable feature of this sea flag is its simplicity. Unlike previous designs, this flag does not allow for any additional designs, symbols or badges to be displayed on it.

However, it is important to note that the exact shade of blue specified for the flag was not provided in the legislation. As a result, there is room for variation in the colour of blue used in practice. This means that the flag’s blue hue can range from very light to very dark, depending on the interpretation of the flagmakers.

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Greek flag history

Greek flag history

The history of the Greek flag is a topic that has fascinated historians and scholars for many years. While the flag we know today features a cross-and-stripe pattern of blue and white, tracing its exact origins and the reasons behind its adoption in early 1822 is a matter of debate, with several historical elements coming into play.

Blue is a prominent colour in the flag’s design. The Roman merchant flag’s civic ensign, which was in use in the Ottoman Empire from 1453 until 1793, is said to have served as the model for this colour. Because it signified both Orthodox Christianity and the Greek community residing in the Ottoman Empire, the Roman flag held special significance.

Historians have also looked at the idea that an earlier design connected to the Kallergis family of Crete may have inspired the design of the current Greek flag. Their banner, with its alternating blue and white stripes and the cross, which is customarily positioned in the upper left corner, was quite similar to the modern Greek flag. It was believed that the standards of their purported progenitor, the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas, who ruled from 963 to 969 AD, served as inspiration for this design.

While there is historical documentation of the Kallergis family’s coats of arms incorporating alternating blue and white (or silver) stripes, no surviving depictions of the exact nine-stripe pattern with the cross have been found. This lack of concrete evidence adds an element of mystery to the flag’s origins, making it challenging to establish a clear lineage for the modern Greek flag.

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Greek flag meaning

Greek flag meaning

Each element of the flag carries a special meaning for the Greek people. Here is an exploration of the meanings behind the Greek flag:

Blue and white colours:

  • Blue: The blue colour used in the Greek flag is often associated with the sky and the sea, two fundamental elements in Greece’s natural environment. It symbolises the vast blue sky that stretches over the country and the beautiful blue waters that surround its islands.
  • White: The white colour represents the purity of the Greek struggle for independence and the hope for a better future. It also signifies the waves of the Aegean Sea, where Greek history and culture have deep roots.

Cross symbol:

The prominent white cross on a blue background represents Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which has been a fundamental part of Greek identity for centuries. Greece is historically known as one of the cradles of Orthodox Christianity and the cross is a powerful symbol of faith and spirituality.

Nine horizontal stripes:

The Greek flag consists of nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white. While these stripes do not have an official meaning, there are popular theories about their significance:

  • Syllables: One theory suggests that the nine stripes represent the syllables of the Greek phrase “Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος” (Elefthería í Thánatos), which means “Freedom or death.” The five blue stripes are believed to represent the syllables in “Ελευθερία,” and the four white stripes represent “ή Θάνατος”.
  • Letters: Another interpretation is that the nine stripes symbolise the letters of the Greek word for “freedom” (Greek: ελευθερία).
  • Historical significance: The Greek flag has a profound historical background. It was officially adopted by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus on January 13, 1822, during the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire. This adoption marked the country’s determination to fight for its freedom.

Connection to Byzantine heritage:

  • While the flag’s exact origins are debated, it may have been inspired by older designs, including the flag of the Cretan Kallergis family. Some researchers suggest connections to Byzantine-era flags with blue and white patterns and crosses.

Resistance and freedom:

  • The Greek flag represents the spirit of resistance and the enduring quest for freedom. It reminds Greeks of their struggle for independence, which ultimately led to the establishment of the modern Greek state.

National Unity:

  • The flag serves as a unifying symbol for the Greek people, bringing together various regions, communities and generations under a common banner. It symbolises the shared history, culture, and values that bind the nation together.

Greek flag colours

The colours of the Greek flag, composed of cyan and white, hold significant historical and symbolic value. However, the exact shade of blue, referred to as ‘cyan’ in official legislation, has been a topic of interpretation and variation.

Cyan and White: The official colours

According to the most recent legislation regarding the Greek national flag, it is officially described as being cyan and white. The flag consists of nine horizontal stripes of equal width, with five of them being cyan and four being white. Notably, the uppermost and lowermost stripes are cyan, while the ones in between are white. This distinctive arrangement is a key feature of the Greek flag.

The term ‘cyan’ in the official description adds an element of ambiguity. In Greek, ‘cyan’ is also synonymous with ‘blue’, which can encompass a range of shades. As a result, the specific shade of blue intended for the Greek flag remains somewhat open to interpretation.

Historical variations

Throughout Greek history, the shade of blue used on the flag has seen variations. In the past, the colour was depicted as a very light shade of blue, particularly during the rule of King Otto. However, during different periods, the colours tended to be darker, including the years of dictatorship and recent times.

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