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Dissecting the multilayered symbol with the Star of David



The Israel flag, with its distinct blue and white design, is far more than just a piece of cloth waving in the wind. It is a powerful emblem that features the iconic Star of David and encapsulates the intricate tapestry of Israel’s history, culture, religion and aspirations.

This piece explores the mystical origins of its symbols, the passionate debates surrounding its meaning and its role as a national icon in a land steeped in ancient history.

What is the Israel flag?

Israel Flag

The flag of Israel, officially known as the “Flag of David” or “Magen David”, is a prominent national symbol of the modern state of Israel. This flag is characterised by its distinctive design, consisting of two horizontal blue stripes, of equal width, set against a white background with a blue Star of David positioned in the centre of the flag. The flag’s simplicity and powerful symbolism make it a potent representation of the nation and its historical and cultural heritage.

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The flag’s most prominent features are the two horizontal blue stripes, one above the other, that span the width of the flag. These stripes are of equal width and are set against a white background. They occupy the upper and lower sections of the flag, leaving the central area for the Star of David. These blue stripes are emblematic of the Jewish prayer shawl, known as the tallit, which is a sacred and significant religious garment in Judaism. By incorporating this motif into the flag, it underscores the deep connection between the Jewish faith and the nation of Israel.

Positioned precisely at the centre of the white field is the blue Star of David, which is the focal point of the flag. Also known as the Shield of David or the Magen David, this six-pointed star is one of the most recognisable symbols of Judaism. Its historical origins are ancient and it has been associated with Jewish identity and heritage for centuries. The placement of the Star of David at the heart of the flag not only signifies its centrality to Jewish culture but also represents the Jewish people’s historical and religious significance in the establishment and preservation of the State of Israel.

The colours blue and white on the flag of Israel encapsulate a profound narrative of faith and spirituality. Blue represents God’s glory, purity and severity, while white symbolises divine benevolence and unity.

However, criticisms of the Israeli flag have arisen from various quarters, particularly by the Israeli Arabs, Palestinians and strictly Orthodox Jews, each expressing distinct concerns and perspectives.

  • Israeli Arabs’ criticism: Israeli Arabs, represented by the High Follow-Up Committee for Arab Citizens of Israel, argue that Israel’s national symbols, including its flag, exhibit an official bias in favour of the Jewish majority. They contend that this reinforces inequality between Arab and Jewish citizens within Israel. This criticism raises questions about the balance between religious and national identity in flag design.
  • Palestinian criticism: Palestinians, including figures like the late Yasser Arafat and Hamas, the political and military group governing Gaza, have interpreted the two blue stripes on the Israeli flag as a symbol of territorial expansion. They suggest that these stripes represent the Nile and Euphrates rivers, alluding to Israel’s alleged desire to claim all the land in between. This interpretation is rooted in the historical and territorial disputes between Israel and Palestine.
  • Orthodox Jews’ criticism: Some Orthodox Jews have criticised the Israeli flag for various reasons, dating back to their opposition to early Zionism. They view the Star of David, originally a religious symbol, as having been “defiled” by its adoption by the World Zionist Organisation. Prominent Orthodox Jews’ religious leaders, including Rabbi Moses Feinstein and Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, have discouraged the display of the Israeli flag in synagogues, considering it a reminder of actions they deem objectionable. Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum went even further as he denounced the symbol as the “flag of heresy” and an object of idol worship.

Despite a legal requirement for government-funded schools to fly the flag since 1997, many strictly Orthodox Jews abstain from displaying it. Some fringe groups even resort to burning the flag on Israel’s Independence Day. However, there are rare exceptions, such as the Ponevezh Yeshiva, which raises the flag once a year in a symbolic gesture of gratitude for state funding.

Israel flag history

people protesting with the Israel Flag

In the Middle Ages, mystical significance was attributed to both the pentagram and the hexagram, which were used as talismans against evil spirits. Both symbols were initially referred to as the “Seal of Solomon”. However, over time, the pentagram became known exclusively as the “Seal of Solomon”, while the hexagram became associated with the “Magen David” or the “Shield of David”.

The Star of David gradually began to appear in Jewish art. In 1648, during the Middle Ages, Ferdinand II permitted the Jews of Prague to fly a “Jewish flag” over their synagogue. This early flag featured a red background with a yellow Magen David in the centre, signifying its importance to the Jewish community.

The notion that blue and white were the national colours of the Jewish people was voiced by Ludwig August von Frankl, an Austrian Jewish poet, in his poem, “Judah’s Colours”. This poem emphasises the colours’ connection to Jewish identity and faith.

In the late 19th century, the use of blue and white flags with the Star of David became more prominent. In 1885, the agricultural village of Rishon LeZion used a blue and white flag with a blue Star of David to mark its anniversary. Similar flags appeared in other communities and this solidified the blue-and-white colour combination and the Star of David as symbols of Jewish identity.

The path to the modern Israeli flag took a significant turn at the First Zionist Congress in Basel in 1897. David Wolffsohn, a prominent Zionist, recognised the need for an official Zionist flag. While Theodor Herzl had initially proposed a flag devoid of traditional Jewish symbolism, Wolffsohn envisioned the flag to be based on the traditional tallit, the Jewish prayer shawl. He ordered a blue and white flag with the Shield of David painted on it.

This flag, known as the Flag of Zion, was officially adopted as the Zionist flag at the Second Zionist Congress in 1898. Its blue and white colours, drawn from the design of the tallit, became a powerful symbol for the Zionist movement.

When the State of Israel was established on May 14, 1948, the Provisional State Council sought proposals for a national flag. While initial considerations aimed to depart from the traditional Zionist flag design to avoid charges of dual loyalty, Zionist representatives from around the world ultimately convinced their Israeli colleagues to adopt the Zionist Organization’s flag as the official flag of the newly formed State of Israel on October 14, 1948.

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Israel flag meaning

Israel Flag flying in the sky

The flag of Israel carries a rich and multifaceted symbolism that reflects the nation’s history, culture, and values. The flag’s design conveys several layers of meaning:

  • Connection to Jewish heritage: The flag of Israel is fundamentally rooted in Jewish heritage. The Star of David, prominently displayed at the centre of the flag, is one of the most recognisable symbols of Judaism.
  • Spiritual significance: The flag’s use of blue and white colours is deeply tied to spiritual and religious concepts within Judaism.
  • Historical legacy: The blue stripes on the flag are intended to symbolise the stripes on a tallit, the traditional Jewish prayer shawl. This connection to the tallit serves as a reminder of Jewish faith and tradition. It reflects the importance of prayer and spirituality in the lives of the Jewish people.
  • National identity: The flag of Israel is not just a religious symbol, it is also a powerful emblem of national identity. It was officially adopted on May 14, 1948, the day when the State of Israel was established. It symbolises the unity and resilience of the Israeli people.

Israel flag colours

Israel Flag on a pole

The flag of Israel is characterised by its striking blue and white colour scheme. Each element of the flag’s design, including the blue and white colours, is rich in symbolism and reflects the heritage and identity of the nation.

Blue: Symbol of God’s glory, purity and severity

The blue colour on the Israeli flag carries a deep and multifaceted symbolism rooted in Jewish tradition and spirituality. In Judaism, blue is associated with several profound concepts:

  • God’s glory: Blue symbolises the glory of God, signifying the divine presence and the heavenly realm.
  • Purity: Blue is also a representation of purity, emphasising the moral and spiritual purity that are essential values in Judaism. It underscores the aspiration for a righteous and virtuous life.\
  • Severity (Gevurah): In Jewish mysticism, or Kabbalah, blue is linked to the concept of “Gevurah”, which represents God’s severity or strict judgment. This aspect emphasises the importance of justice and discipline in one’s actions and character.

White: Symbol of Divine Benevolence (Chesed)

The white background of the Israeli flag carries its unique symbolism. The colour provides a duality of meanings:

  • Divine benevolence: White symbolises the divine benevolence and kindness of God. It underscores the idea that God watches over and blesses the Jewish people with compassion and care.
  • Harmony and unity: White also signifies harmony and unity. It represents the hope for peace and co-existence among the diverse groups within Israeli society and the broader world.

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